Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving
p.405 If one seeks the reason(s) for someone’s success or failure in a problem-solving attempt in any knowledge-rich domain, the cause of that success or failure will be located in one or more of that person’s:
a. domain-specific knowledge and resources,
b. access to productive “heuristic” strategies for making progress on challenging problems in that domain,
c. monitoring and self-regulation (aspects of metacognition), and
d. belief systems regarding that domain and one’s sense of self as a thinker in general and a doer of that domain in particular (in more current language, one’s domain-specific identity).
Schoenfeld, A. H. (2014). What Makes for Powerful Classrooms, and How Can We Support Teachers in Creating Them? A Story of Research and Practice, Productively Intertwined. Educational Researcher, 43(8), 404–412. doi:10.3102/0013189X14554450